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Geography and Geospatial Science: Information Evaluation

Guide to library resources for research in Geography and Geographic Information Science

Information Evaluation

Critically evaluating information is an integral part of the research process. Be especially diligent when using information from organizations that advance an ideological or political agenda. Consult the Information Evaluation pages of the library's Research 101 guide for more information.

Source Types & Information Evaluation

Identifying the type of source you are using can help in evaluating the source. Consult the Source Types pages of the Research 101 guide for more information.

Evaluating Sources Video

Have you found a quality information source or is it CRAAP?  This video outlines using CRAAP criteria--Currency, Relevance, Authority, Accuracy, and Purpose--to evaluate information.

Western Libraries (2:16)

Using Evaluation Criteria

Applying a set of standards to information sources will help you judge their credibility and relevancy. The evaluation process will depend on the purpose for which you are using the information. If you are settling a bet with a friend about the dates the Back to the Future movies came out you may not dedicate too much time to evaluating your sources. If, however, you are researching for an academic or professional project or looking for information to guide an important decision you will want to carefully scrutinize information sources before relying on them.

Good research involves using multiple sources of information. In addition to applying the CRAAP criteria, compare the information you find with that in other sources.

Evaluation Criteria


Is the information up-to-date enough for my topic?

Rapid advancements in science necessitate looking for very current information when researching in this area. In other areas of study, older information may still be valued. Consult multiple sources to ascertain if there have been recent substantial developments in the field.


Does the information pertain to my topic and cover it in enough depth to meet my needs?

Identifying a work's intended audience can help in determining its depth of coverage. Information for the general public will vary in depth. Information for children will be simple, while information aimed at professionals may require advanced training to understand.


Who is responsible for the content and what are their qualifications?

The following reflect positively on an author's authority to write about a subject:

    • author of multiple books and articles about the topic
    • professor of a subject related to the topic
    • affiliated with a recognized corporation, institution, or group in the field
    • employed in a capacity related to the subject matter

Publication by a scholarly press or being subject to the peer review process before publication also reflect positively on a work's authority.


Is the information reliable and free from error?

Authority often impacts accuracy. Experts and respected organizations strive to produce works with accurate information.

Is there support for the information given?

Any author who borrows information from another source should give credit to the original source through citations and a list of references. Works striving for accuracy will identify what information is borrowed and give the reader a complete reference so that the reader can locate the original source.

Evaluate accuracy in terms of your whole research project.

    • Compare information with what you know about the topic
    • Compare information with other sources


Is the information presented without bias or is the bias acceptable for my purpose?

Why was the work created?  Is its purpose to entertain, inform or explain, persuade, sell products or services, or a combination of these things? A work's purpose will influence what information is included and how it is presented. If a work is meant to persuade, the work's authors may exclude information from detracts from their case or place more emphasis on information that supports their arguments.

Beware of hidden agendas

Some works may appear to be informative or explanatory when in fact they are expressing opinions or advocating for certain positions.

Using biased works

You may choose to use biased sites in your research. The important thing is to recognize that the works you are using are biased and to balance the information you find there with that found in other sources.


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