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Nursing: In-Text Citations

Nursing Research Guide

Briggs Library Information Services

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Briggs Library Reference
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South Dakota State University
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Citing Your Sources in Your Paper

Citing a work in the text of your paper is generally done with the author and year of publication. If you are citing a specific part of a source (for example, a quote or paraphrase), the page number is also needed.

One Author

Kessler (2003) found that among epidemiological samples....

Early onset results in a more persistent and severe course (Kessler, 2003).

Two Authors

Cite both names every time the work is cited. In the text, use the word "and" between the names but in parenthetical citations, use an ampersand (&).

Ryan and Ferullo (2011) say that....

Copyright can be managed in a university setting (Ryan & Ferullo, 2011).

Three, Four, or Five Authors

Cite all the authors the first time the citation occurs in a paper. All later citations use the surname of the first author and et al.

1st citation: Kisangau, Lyaruu, Hosea, and Joseph (2007) found....

2nd citation Kisangau et al. (2007) found....

If works with three or more authors from the same year shorten to the same citation, include the surnames of as many authors as needed to distinguish them.

1st citations: (Ireys, Chernoff, DeVet, & Kim, 2001)... (Ireys, Chernoff, Stein, DeVet, & Silver, 2001)

2nd citations: (Ireys, Chernoff, DeVet et al., 2001)... (Ireys, Chernoff, Stein et al., 2001)

Six or More Authors

Use the surname of the first author with et al.

Kosslyn et al. (1996) was actually written by Kossly, Koenig, Barrett, Cave, Tahng, and Gabrieli.

Authors With the Same Surname

Use the initials of the primary author.

M. A. Light and Light (2008).... I. Light (2006)....

Groups as Authors

Spell the entire name of the group  in every citation unless the name is long and the abbreviation is well known.

1st citation:  
      (National Criminal Justice Reference Service, 2001)
      (Brookings Fiber Arts Guild, 2010)

2nd citation:  
      (NCJRS, 2001)
      (Brookings Fiber Arts Guild, 2010)

No Identified Author

When you use the title as the first element of a citation, use the first few words of the title in quotation marks in the reference.

("Study Finds," 2007).

the book College Bound Seniors (2008).

When a work's author is designated as Anonymous, use Anonymous as the author.

(Anonymous, 1998).

Multiple Works in the Same Parenthetical Citation

List works in the order they appear in the reference list.

Personal Communications

Works which are not archived in such a way as to be recoverable by other people, are not included in the reference list but must be cited in the text of the paper. Use the initals and surname of the communicator and provide as exact a date as possible.

T. K. Lutes (personal communication, April 18, 2001).

(V.-G. Nguyen, personal communication, September 28, 1998)

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